## Sessions and the REPL¶

### How do I delete an object in memory?¶

Julia does not have an analog of MATLAB’s clear function; once a name is defined in a Julia session (technically, in module Main), it is always present.

If memory usage is your concern, you can always replace objects with ones that consume less memory. For example, if A is a gigabyte-sized array that you no longer need, you can free the memory with A = 0. The memory will be released the next time the garbage collector runs; you can force this to happen with gc().

### How can I modify the declaration of a type/immutable in my session?¶

Perhaps you’ve defined a type and then realize you need to add a new field. If you try this at the REPL, you get the error:

ERROR: invalid redefinition of constant MyType


Types in module Main cannot be redefined.

While this can be inconvenient when you are developing new code, there’s an excellent workaround. Modules can be replaced by redefining them, and so if you wrap all your new code inside a module you can redefine types and constants. You can’t import the type names into Main and then expect to be able to redefine them there, but you can use the module name to resolve the scope. In other words, while developing you might use a workflow something like this:

include("mynewcode.jl")              # this defines a module MyModule
obj1 = MyModule.ObjConstructor(a, b)
obj2 = MyModule.somefunction(obj1)
# Got an error. Change something in "mynewcode.jl"
obj1 = MyModule.ObjConstructor(a, b) # old objects are no longer valid, must reconstruct
obj2 = MyModule.somefunction(obj1)   # this time it worked!
obj3 = MyModule.someotherfunction(obj2, c)
...


## Functions¶

### I passed an argument x to a function, modified it inside that function, but on the outside, the variable x is still unchanged. Why?¶

Suppose you call a function like this:

julia> x = 10
julia> function change_value!(y) # Create a new function
y = 17
end
julia> change_value!(x)
julia> x # x is unchanged!
10


In Julia, any function (including change_value!()) can’t change the binding of a local variable. If x (in the calling scope) is bound to a immutable object (like a real number), you can’t modify the object; likewise, if x is bound in the calling scope to a Dict, you can’t change it to be bound to an ASCIIString.

But here is a thing you should pay attention to: suppose x is bound to an Array (or any other mutable type). You cannot “unbind” x from this Array. But, since an Array is a mutable type, you can change its content. For example:

julia> x = [1,2,3]
3-element Array{Int64,1}:
1
2
3

julia> function change_array!(A) # Create a new function
A[1] = 5
end
julia> change_array!(x)
julia> x
3-element Array{Int64,1}:
5
2
3


Here we created a function change_array!(), that assigns 5 to the first element of the Array. We passed x (which was previously bound to an Array) to the function. Notice that, after the function call, x is still bound to the same Array, but the content of that Array changed.

### Can I use using or import inside a function?¶

No, you are not allowed to have a using or import statement inside a function. If you want to import a module but only use its symbols inside a specific function or set of functions, you have two options:

1. Use import:

import Foo
function bar(...)
... refer to Foo symbols via Foo.baz ...
end


This loads the module Foo and defines a variable Foo that refers to the module, but does not import any of the other symbols from the module into the current namespace. You refer to the Foo symbols by their qualified names Foo.bar etc.

2. Wrap your function in a module:

module Bar
export bar
using Foo
function bar(...)
... refer to Foo.baz as simply baz ....
end
end
using Bar


This imports all the symbols from Foo, but only inside the module Bar.

## Types, type declarations, and constructors¶

### What does “type-stable” mean?¶

It means that the type of the output is predictable from the types of the inputs. In particular, it means that the type of the output cannot vary depending on the values of the inputs. The following code is not type-stable:

function unstable(flag::Bool)
if flag
return 1
else
return 1.0
end
end


It returns either an Int or a Float64 depending on the value of its argument. Since Julia can’t predict the return type of this function at compile-time, any computation that uses it will have to guard against both types possibly occurring, making generation of fast machine code difficult.

### Why does Julia give a DomainError for certain seemingly-sensible operations?¶

Certain operations make mathematical sense but result in errors:

julia> sqrt(-2.0)
ERROR: DomainError
in sqrt at math.jl:128

julia> 2^-5
ERROR: DomainError
in power_by_squaring at intfuncs.jl:70
in ^ at intfuncs.jl:84


This behavior is an inconvenient consequence of the requirement for type-stability. In the case of sqrt, most users want sqrt(2.0) to give a real number, and would be unhappy if it produced the complex number 1.4142135623730951 + 0.0im. One could write the sqrt function to switch to a complex-valued output only when passed a negative number (which is what sqrt does in some other languages), but then the result would not be type-stable and the sqrt function would have poor performance.

In these and other cases, you can get the result you want by choosing an input type that conveys your willingness to accept an output type in which the result can be represented:

julia> sqrt(-2.0+0im)
0.0 + 1.4142135623730951im

julia> 2.0^-5
0.03125


### Why does Julia use native machine integer arithmetic?¶

Julia uses machine arithmetic for integer computations. This means that the range of Int values is bounded and wraps around at either end so that adding, subtracting and multiplying integers can overflow or underflow, leading to some results that can be unsettling at first:

julia> typemax(Int)
9223372036854775807

julia> ans+1
-9223372036854775808

julia> -ans
-9223372036854775808

julia> 2*ans
0


Clearly, this is far from the way mathematical integers behave, and you might think it less than ideal for a high-level programming language to expose this to the user. For numerical work where efficiency and transparency are at a premium, however, the alternatives are worse.

One alternative to consider would be to check each integer operation for overflow and promote results to bigger integer types such as Int128 or BigInt in the case of overflow. Unfortunately, this introduces major overhead on every integer operation (think incrementing a loop counter) – it requires emitting code to perform run-time overflow checks after arithmetic instructions and braches to handle potential overflows. Worse still, this would cause every computation involving integers to be type-unstable. As we mentioned above, type-stability is crucial for effective generation of efficient code. If you can’t count on the results of integer operations being integers, it’s impossible to generate fast, simple code the way C and Fortran compilers do.

A variation on this approach, which avoids the appearance of type instabilty is to merge the Int and BigInt types into a single hybrid integer type, that internally changes representation when a result no longer fits into the size of a machine integer. While this superficially avoids type-instability at the level of Julia code, it just sweeps the problem under the rug by foisting all of the same difficulties onto the C code implementing this hybrid integer type. This approach can be made to work and can even be made quite fast in many cases, but has several drawbacks. One problem is that the in-memory representation of integers and arrays of integers no longer match the natural representation used by C, Fortran and other languages with native machine integers. Thus, to interoperate with those languages, we would ultimately need to introduce native integer types anyway. Any unbounded representation of integers cannot have a fixed number of bits, and thus cannot be stored inline in an array with fixed-size slots – large integer values will always require separate heap-allocated storage. And of course, no matter how clever a hybrid integer implementation one uses, there are always performance traps – situations where performance degrades unexpectedly. Complex representation, lack of interoperability with C and Fortran, the inability to represent integer arrays without additional heap storage, and unpredictable performance characteristics make even the cleverest hybrid integer implementations a poor choice for high-performance numerical work.

An alternative to using hybrid integers or promoting to BigInts is to use saturating integer arithmetic, where adding to the largest integer value leaves it unchanged and likewise for subtracting from the smallest integer value. This is precisely what Matlab™ does:

>> int64(9223372036854775807)

ans =

9223372036854775807

>> int64(9223372036854775807) + 1

ans =

9223372036854775807

>> int64(-9223372036854775808)

ans =

-9223372036854775808

>> int64(-9223372036854775808) - 1

ans =

-9223372036854775808


At first blush, this seems reasonable enough since 9223372036854775807 is much closer to 9223372036854775808 than -9223372036854775808 is and integers are still represented with a fixed size in a natural way that is compatible with C and Fortran. Saturated integer arithmetic, however, is deeply problematic. The first and most obvious issue is that this is not the way machine integer arithmetic works, so implementing saturated operations requires emiting instructions after each machine integer operation to check for underflow or overflow and replace the result with typemin(Int) or typemax(Int) as appropriate. This alone expands each integer operation from a single, fast instruction into half a dozen instructions, probably including branches. Ouch. But it gets worse – saturating integer arithmetic isn’t associative. Consider this Matlab computation:

>> n = int64(2)^62
4611686018427387904

>> n + (n - 1)
9223372036854775807

>> (n + n) - 1
9223372036854775806


This makes it hard to write many basic integer algorithms since a lot of common techniques depend on the fact that machine addition with overflow is associative. Consider finding the midpoint between integer values lo and hi in Julia using the expression (lo + hi) >>> 1:

julia> n = 2^62
4611686018427387904

julia> (n + 2n) >>> 1
6917529027641081856


See? No problem. That’s the correct midpoint between 2^62 and 2^63, despite the fact that n + 2n is -4611686018427387904. Now try it in Matlab:

>> (n + 2*n)/2

ans =

4611686018427387904


Oops. Adding a >>> operator to Matlab wouldn’t help, because saturation that occurs when adding n and 2n has already destroyed the information necessary to compute the correct midpoint.

Not only is lack of associativity unfortunate for programmers who cannot rely it for techniques like this, but it also defeats almost anything compilers might want to do to optimize integer arithmetic. For example, since Julia integers use normal machine integer arithmetic, LLVM is free to aggressively optimize simple little functions like f(k) = 5k-1. The machine code for this function is just this:

julia> code_native(f,(Int,))
.section    __TEXT,__text,regular,pure_instructions
Filename: none
Source line: 1
push    RBP
mov RBP, RSP
Source line: 1
lea RAX, QWORD PTR [RDI + 4*RDI - 1]
pop RBP
ret


The actual body of the function is a single lea instruction, which computes the integer multiply and add at once. This is even more beneficial when f gets inlined into another function:

julia> function g(k,n)
for i = 1:n
k = f(k)
end
return k
end
g (generic function with 2 methods)

julia> code_native(g,(Int,Int))
.section    __TEXT,__text,regular,pure_instructions
Filename: none
Source line: 3
push    RBP
mov RBP, RSP
test    RSI, RSI
jle 22
mov EAX, 1
Source line: 3
lea RDI, QWORD PTR [RDI + 4*RDI - 1]
inc RAX
cmp RAX, RSI
Source line: 2
jle -17
Source line: 5
mov RAX, RDI
pop RBP
ret


Since the call to f gets inlined, the loop body ends up being just a single lea instruction. Next, consider what happens if we make the number of loop iterations fixed:

julia> function g(k)
for i = 1:10
k = f(k)
end
return k
end
g (generic function with 2 methods)

julia> code_native(g,(Int,))
.section    __TEXT,__text,regular,pure_instructions
Filename: none
Source line: 3
push    RBP
mov RBP, RSP
Source line: 3
imul    RAX, RDI, 9765625
Source line: 5
pop RBP
ret


Because the compiler knows that integer addition and multiplication are associative and that multiplication distributes over addition – neither of which is true of saturating arithmetic – it can optimize the entire loop down to just a multiply and an add. Saturated arithmetic completely defeats this kind of optimization since associativity and distributivity can fail at each loop iteration, causing different outcomes depending on which iteration the failure occurs in. The compiler can unroll the loop, but it cannot algebraically reduce multiple operations into fewer equivalent operations.

Saturated integer arithmetic is just one example of a really poor choice of language semantics that completely prevents effective performance optimization. There are many things that are difficult about C programming, but integer overflow is not one of them – especially on 64-bit systems. If my integers really might get bigger than 2^63-1, I can easily predict that. Am I looping over a number of actual things that are stored in the computer? Then it’s not going to get that big. This is guaranteed, since I don’t have that much memory. Am I counting things that occur in the real world? Unless they’re grains of sand or atoms in the universe, 2^63-1 is going to be plenty big. Am I computing a factorial? Then sure, they might get that big – I should use a BigInt. See? Easy to distinguish.

### How do “abstract” or ambiguous fields in types interact with the compiler?¶

Types can be declared without specifying the types of their fields:

julia> type MyAmbiguousType
a
end


This allows a to be of any type. This can often be useful, but it does have a downside: for objects of type MyAmbiguousType, the compiler will not be able to generate high-performance code. The reason is that the compiler uses the types of objects, not their values, to determine how to build code. Unfortunately, very little can be inferred about an object of type MyAmbiguousType:

julia> b = MyAmbiguousType("Hello")
MyAmbiguousType("Hello")

julia> c = MyAmbiguousType(17)
MyAmbiguousType(17)

julia> typeof(b)
MyAmbiguousType (constructor with 1 method)

julia> typeof(c)
MyAmbiguousType (constructor with 1 method)


b and c have the same type, yet their underlying representation of data in memory is very different. Even if you stored just numeric values in field a, the fact that the memory representation of a Uint8 differs from a Float64 also means that the CPU needs to handle them using two different kinds of instructions. Since the required information is not available in the type, such decisions have to be made at run-time. This slows performance.

You can do better by declaring the type of a. Here, we are focused on the case where a might be any one of several types, in which case the natural solution is to use parameters. For example:

julia> type MyType{T<:FloatingPoint}
a::T
end


This is a better choice than

julia> type MyStillAmbiguousType
a::FloatingPoint
end


because the first version specifies the type of a from the type of the wrapper object. For example:

julia> m = MyType(3.2)
MyType{Float64}(3.2)

julia> t = MyStillAmbiguousType(3.2)
MyStillAmbiguousType(3.2)

julia> typeof(m)
MyType{Float64} (constructor with 1 method)

julia> typeof(t)
MyStillAmbiguousType (constructor with 2 methods)


The type of field a can be readily determined from the type of m, but not from the type of t. Indeed, in t it’s possible to change the type of field a:

julia> typeof(t.a)
Float64

julia> t.a = 4.5f0
4.5f0

julia> typeof(t.a)
Float32


In contrast, once m is constructed, the type of m.a cannot change:

julia> m.a = 4.5f0
4.5

julia> typeof(m.a)
Float64


The fact that the type of m.a is known from m‘s type—coupled with the fact that its type cannot change mid-function—allows the compiler to generate highly-optimized code for objects like m but not for objects like t.

Of course, all of this is true only if we construct m with a concrete type. We can break this by explicitly constructing it with an abstract type:

julia> m = MyType{FloatingPoint}(3.2)
MyType{FloatingPoint}(3.2)

julia> typeof(m.a)
Float64

julia> m.a = 4.5f0
4.5f0

julia> typeof(m.a)
Float32


For all practical purposes, such objects behave identically to those of MyStillAmbiguousType.

It’s quite instructive to compare the sheer amount code generated for a simple function

func(m::MyType) = m.a+1


using

code_llvm(func,(MyType{Float64},))
code_llvm(func,(MyType{FloatingPoint},))
code_llvm(func,(MyType,))


For reasons of length the results are not shown here, but you may wish to try this yourself. Because the type is fully-specified in the first case, the compiler doesn’t need to generate any code to resolve the type at run-time. This results in shorter and faster code.

### How should I declare “abstract container type” fields?¶

The same best practices that apply in the previous section also work for container types:

julia> type MySimpleContainer{A<:AbstractVector}
a::A
end

julia> type MyAmbiguousContainer{T}
a::AbstractVector{T}
end


For example:

julia> c = MySimpleContainer(1:3);

julia> typeof(c)
MySimpleContainer{UnitRange{Int64}} (constructor with 1 method)

julia> c = MySimpleContainer([1:3]);

julia> typeof(c)
MySimpleContainer{Array{Int64,1}} (constructor with 1 method)

julia> b = MyAmbiguousContainer(1:3);

julia> typeof(b)
MyAmbiguousContainer{Int64} (constructor with 1 method)

julia> b = MyAmbiguousContainer([1:3]);

julia> typeof(b)
MyAmbiguousContainer{Int64} (constructor with 1 method)


For MySimpleContainer, the object is fully-specified by its type and parameters, so the compiler can generate optimized functions. In most instances, this will probably suffice.

While the compiler can now do its job perfectly well, there are cases where you might wish that your code could do different things depending on the element type of a. Usually the best way to achieve this is to wrap your specific operation (here, foo) in a separate function:

function sumfoo(c::MySimpleContainer)
s = 0
for x in c.a
s += foo(x)
end
s
end

foo(x::Integer) = x
foo(x::FloatingPoint) = round(x)


This keeps things simple, while allowing the compiler to generate optimized code in all cases.

However, there are cases where you may need to declare different versions of the outer function for different element types of a. You could do it like this:

function myfun{T<:FloatingPoint}(c::MySimpleContainer{Vector{T}})
...
end
function myfun{T<:Integer}(c::MySimpleContainer{Vector{T}})
...
end


This works fine for Vector{T}, but we’d also have to write explicit versions for Range1{T} or other abstract types. To prevent such tedium, you can use two parameters in the declaration of MyContainer:

type MyContainer{T, A<:AbstractVector}
a::A
end
MyContainer(v::AbstractVector) = MyContainer{eltype(v), typeof(v)}(v)

julia> b = MyContainer(1.3:5);

julia> typeof(b)
MyContainer{Float64,Range1{Float64}}


Note the somewhat surprising fact that T doesn’t appear in the declaration of field a, a point that we’ll return to in a moment. With this approach, one can write functions such as:

function myfunc{T<:Integer, A<:AbstractArray}(c::MyContainer{T,A})
return c.a[1]+1
end
# Note: because we can only define MyContainer for
# A<:AbstractArray, and any unspecified parameters are arbitrary,
# the previous could have been written more succinctly as
#     function myfunc{T<:Integer}(c::MyContainer{T})

function myfunc{T<:FloatingPoint}(c::MyContainer{T})
return c.a[1]+2
end

function myfunc{T<:Integer}(c::MyContainer{T,Vector{T}})
return c.a[1]+3
end

julia> myfunc(MyContainer(1:3))
2

julia> myfunc(MyContainer(1.0:3))
3.0

julia> myfunc(MyContainer([1:3]))
4


As you can see, with this approach it’s possible to specialize on both the element type T and the array type A.

However, there’s one remaining hole: we haven’t enforced that A has element type T, so it’s perfectly possible to construct an object like this:

julia> b = MyContainer{Int64, Range1{Float64}}(1.3:5);

julia> typeof(b)
MyContainer{Int64,Range1{Float64}}


To prevent this, we can add an inner constructor:

type MyBetterContainer{T<:Real, A<:AbstractVector}
a::A

MyBetterContainer(v::AbstractVector{T}) = new(v)
end
MyBetterContainer(v::AbstractVector) = MyBetterContainer{eltype(v),typeof(v)}(v)

julia> b = MyBetterContainer(1.3:5);

julia> typeof(b)
MyBetterContainer{Float64,Range1{Float64}}

julia> b = MyBetterContainer{Int64, Range1{Float64}}(1.3:5);
ERROR: no method MyBetterContainer(Range1{Float64},)


The inner constructor requires that the element type of A be T.

## Nothingness and missing values¶

### How does “null” or “nothingness” work in Julia?¶

Unlike many languages (for example, C and Java), Julia does not have a “null” value. When a reference (variable, object field, or array element) is uninitialized, accessing it will immediately throw an error. This situation can be detected using the isdefined function.

Some functions are used only for their side effects, and do not need to return a value. In these cases, the convention is to return the value nothing, which is just a singleton object of type Nothing. This is an ordinary type with no fields; there is nothing special about it except for this convention, and that the REPL does not print anything for it. Some language constructs that would not otherwise have a value also yield nothing, for example if false; end.

Note that Nothing (uppercase) is the type of nothing, and should only be used in a context where a type is required (e.g. a declaration).

You may occasionally see None, which is quite different. It is the empty (or “bottom”) type, a type with no values and no subtypes (except itself). You will generally not need to use this type.

The empty tuple (()) is another form of nothingness. But, it should not really be thought of as nothing but rather a tuple of zero values.

## Julia Releases¶

### Do I want to use a release, beta, or nightly version of Julia?¶

You may prefer the release version of Julia if you are looking for a stable code base. Releases generally occur every 6 months, giving you a stable platform for writing code.

You may prefer the beta version of Julia if you don’t mind being slightly behind the latest bugfixes and changes, but find the slightly slower rate of changes more appealing. Additionally, these binaries are tested before they are published to ensure they are fully functional.

You may prefer the nightly version of Julia if you want to take advantage of the latest updates to the language, and don’t mind if the version available today occasionally doesn’t actually work.

Finally, you may also consider building Julia from source for yourself. This option is mainly for those individuals who are comfortable at the command line, or interested in learning. If this describes you, you may also be interested in reading our guidelines for contributing.

### When are deprecated functions removed?¶

Deprecated functions are removed after the subsequent release. For example, functions marked as deprecated in the 0.1 release will not be available starting with the 0.2 release.

## Developing Julia¶

### How do I debug julia’s C code? (running the julia REPL from within a debugger like gdb)¶

First, you should build the debug version of julia with make debug. Below, lines starting with (gdb) mean things you should type at the gdb prompt.

#### From the shell¶

The main challenge is that Julia and gdb each need to have their own terminal, to allow you to interact with them both. One approach is to use gdb’s attach functionality to debug an already-running julia session. However, on many systems you’ll need root access to get this to work. What follows is a method that can be implemented with just user-level permissions.

The first time you do this, you’ll need to define a script, here called oterm, containing the following lines:

ps
sleep 600000


Make it executable with chmod +x oterm.

Now:

• From a shell (called shell 1), type xterm -e oterm &. You’ll see a new window pop up; this will be called terminal 2.
• From within shell 1, gdb julia-debug. You can find this executable within julia/usr/bin.
• From within shell 1, (gdb) tty /dev/pts/# where # is the number shown after pts/ in terminal 2.
• From within shell 1, (gdb) run
• From within terminal 2, issue any preparatory commands in Julia that you need to get to the step you want to debug
• From within shell 1, hit Ctrl-C
• From within shell 1, insert your breakpoint, e.g., (gdb) b codegen.cpp:2244
• From within shell 1, (gdb) c to resume execution of julia
• From within terminal 2, issue the command that you want to debug. Shell 1 will stop at your breakpoint.

#### Within emacs¶

• M-x gdb, then enter julia-debug (this is easiest from within julia/usr/bin, or you can specify the full path)
• (gdb) run
• Now you’ll see the Julia prompt. Run any commands in Julia you need to get to the step you want to debug.
• Under emacs’ “Signals” menu choose BREAK—this will return you to the (gdb) prompt
• Set a breakpoint, e.g., (gdb) b codegen.cpp:2244
• Go back to the Julia prompt via (gdb) c
• Execute the Julia command you want to see running.